Kardia Village is just to the north of the farm Mist is loaning you. If you take the path directly east of your house you'll walk right into town. Most of the villagers will stay inside all day, but on the weekend you'll see them outside of their shops.
There are other people living in the village besides the marriageable ladies.
Each season there are various events you can participate in. Some reward you with prizes, while others just allow you the chance to raise your friendship with the people you talk to.
There are only a handfull of extra story events. Some are requirements for marriage, and others are just for fun.
A strightforward seasonal calendar. The calendar in your house will list the current season's festivals and villager birthdays.